Elasticsearch Routing

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Last Update : July 2020

Routing in Elasticsearch

What it is

In Elasticsearch, routing refers to document routing. When you index a document, Elasticsearch will determine which shard will be used to index the document to. 

The shard is selected based on the following formula:

shard = hash(_routing) % number_of_primary_shards

Where the default value of _routing is _id.
It is important to know which shard the document is routed to, because Elasticsearch will need to determine where to find that document later on for document retrieval requests. 

Examples

In twitter index with 2 primary shards, the document with _id equal to “440” gets routed to the shard number:   

shard = hash( 440 ) % 2
PUT twitter/_doc/440
{
...
}

Notes
  • In order to improve search performance speed you can create custom routing. For example, you can enable custom routing that will ensure only a single shard is queried (the shard that contains your data).
  • To create custom routing in Elasticsearch, you will need to configure and define  that not all routing will be completed by default settings. ( v <= 5.0)
PUT my_index/customer/_mapping
{
   "order":{
      "_routing":{
         "required":true
      }
   }
}
  •  This will ensure that every document in the “customer” type must specify a custom routing.  For elasticsearch 6 or above you will need to update the same mapping as:
PUT my_index/_mapping
{
   "order":{
      "_routing":{
         "required":true
      }
   }
}

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