Elasticsearch Elasticsearch Insert Document

By Opster Team

Updated: Jan 28, 2024

| 2 min read

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Elasticsearch Insert Document: Best Practices and Performance Optimization

Inserting documents into Elasticsearch is a crucial operation for indexing and storing data. This article will discuss best practices and performance optimization techniques for inserting documents into Elasticsearch.

1. Use Bulk API for Batch Inserts

Instead of inserting documents one by one, use the Bulk API to insert multiple documents in a single request. This approach reduces the overhead of network round trips and improves indexing performance.


POST /_bulk
{ "index" : { "_index" : "test", "_id" : "1" } }
{ "field1" : "value1" }
{ "index" : { "_index" : "test", "_id" : "2" } }
{ "field1" : "value2" }

2. Optimize Index Settings

Adjust index settings to improve indexing performance during the insert operation. Some recommended settings include:

  • Increase the refresh interval (default is 1s) to reduce the frequency of segment merging.
  • Disable replicas during indexing and enable them after the operation is complete.
  • Increase the number of shards for better parallelism and distribution of data.


PUT /test/_settings
"index" : {
"refresh_interval" : "30s",
"number_of_replicas" : 0

3. Use the Auto-Generated Document ID

When possible, use Elasticsearch’s auto-generated document IDs instead of specifying custom IDs. This approach can improve indexing performance as Elasticsearch can optimize the process of generating IDs.


POST /test/_doc
"field1": "value1"

4. Optimize Mapping and Analyzers

Choose the appropriate data types and analyzers for your fields to optimize indexing performance. Some recommendations include:

  • Use the “keyword” data type for fields that don’t require full-text search.
  • Use the “text” data type with a custom analyzer for fields that require specific tokenization or filtering.
  • Disable indexing for fields that are not used in search or aggregations.


PUT /test
"mappings": {
"properties": {
"field1": {
"type": "keyword"
"field2": {
"type": "text",
"analyzer": "custom_analyzer"
"field3": {
"type": "text",
"index": false

5. Monitor and Adjust Indexing Performance

Monitor the indexing performance using Elasticsearch’s monitoring APIs, such as the Index Stats API and the Nodes Stats API. Identify bottlenecks and adjust index settings, mappings, or hardware resources accordingly.


GET /test/_stats
GET /_nodes/stats


In conclusion, optimizing the insert document operation in Elasticsearch involves using the Bulk API, adjusting index settings, utilizing auto-generated document IDs, optimizing mappings and analyzers, and monitoring performance. By following these best practices, you can improve the indexing performance and ensure efficient data storage in Elasticsearch.

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