Elasticsearch Elasticsearch Index API

By Opster Team

Updated: Jun 22, 2023

| 2 min read

Elasticsearch Index API: Advanced Usage and Best Practices

The Elasticsearch Index API is a crucial component for managing data within your cluster. This article will delve into advanced usage and best practices for optimizing the performance and reliability of your Elasticsearch environment. If you want to learn more about the concept of Elasticsearch indeces and how to create, list, query and delete them, check out this guide.  

1. Bulk Indexing

When indexing multiple documents, it’s more efficient to use the Bulk API instead of individual Index API calls. The Bulk API allows you to perform multiple index, update, and delete operations in a single request, reducing the overhead and improving performance.


POST /_bulk
{ "index" : { "_index" : "test", "_id" : "1" } }
{ "field1" : "value1" }
{ "index" : { "_index" : "test", "_id" : "2" } }
{ "field1" : "value2" }

2. Auto-generated IDs

When indexing a document without specifying an ID, Elasticsearch will automatically generate a unique ID for the document. Auto-generated IDs are more efficient because they are optimized for the indexing process and reduce the chance of conflicts.


POST /test/_doc
{ "field1" : "value1" }

3. Refresh Interval

By default, Elasticsearch refreshes the index every second, making new documents searchable. However, frequent refreshes can impact indexing performance. In high indexing rate scenarios, consider increasing the refresh interval to reduce the overhead.


PUT /test/_settings
{ "index" : { "refresh_interval" : "30s" } }

4. Routing

Routing allows you to control which shard a document is indexed on, based on a specific field value. This can improve query performance by reducing the number of shards queried. Use routing with caution, as it can lead to uneven shard distribution if not properly configured.


PUT /test/_doc/1?routing=user1
{ "user" : "user1", "content" : "example content" }

5. Versioning

Elasticsearch supports optimistic concurrency control using the `_version` field. When updating a document, you can specify the expected version to ensure no other process has modified the document in the meantime. If the current version doesn’t match the expected version, the update will fail.


PUT /test/_doc/1?version=2
{ "field1" : "updated value" }

6. Time-Based Indices

For time-series data, it’s recommended to use time-based indices, or data streams, which split data into smaller indices based on a time range. This allows for more efficient querying and easier management of data retention policies.


PUT /logs-2022.01.01/_doc/1
{ "@timestamp" : "2022-01-01T00:00:00", "message" : "log message" }


By following these advanced practices, you can optimize the Elasticsearch Index API usage, improving the performance and reliability of your cluster.

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